To defend against these attacks there are a combination of strategies and technologies used to mitigate the risks against information systems. Students will learn how passwords, biometrics and authentication systems are used to control access to systems. How cryptographic techniques including encryption, hashing, digital signatures and digital certificates protect information. How technology and software defences; Firewalls, Virtual Private Networks, Antivirus software, Intrusion Detection systems and Honey pots work to protect systems. How criminals can be identified, detected and prosecuted using computer audit logs, digital forensics and the collection and preservation of digital evidence.